Photoluminescence Measurement of Triplet Sensitizer-Emitter Solution Using a Customized 3D-Printed Sample Holder


  • Kelvin Voon Yan Jie
  • Safizan Shaari
  • Mohd Fairus Ahmad
  • Nor Farhani Zakaria
  • Norhayati Sabani



This study explores the photoluminescence (PL) measurement of triplet sensitizer-emitter (TSE) solutions using a custom 3D-printed sample holder, within the context of triplet-triplet annihilation based molecular photon upconversion (TTA-UC) systems targeting the Vis-to-UV spectral region. TTA-UC converts low-energy visible photons to higher-energy ultraviolet (UV) photons, holding promise for solar energy harvesting and photonics applications. Two TSE couples, 4CzIPN/TP and 4CzIPN/QP, were investigated, and their upconverted fluorescence spectra showed peaks at 344 nm and 354 nm / 370 nm, respectively, confirming efficient upconversion capabilities. The 3D-printed sample holder facilitated reproducible PL measurements, enabling the calculation of quantum yields (ΦUC). The 4CzIPN/TP and 4CzIPN/QP couples exhibited low quantum yields (0.028% and 0.043%, respectively), suggesting the need for improved deoxygenation methods to enhance the triplet-triplet annihilation process and overall quantum efficiency. Despite modest yields, successful UV upconverted fluorescence observation underscores the feasibility of the Vis-to-UV TTA-UC system. This study provides insights into TTA-UC optimization and demonstrates the utility of the 3D-printed sample holder for affordable and precise PL measurements, paving the way for future advancements in photonics and solar energy applications.


Photoluminescence, 3D-printing, Sensitizer-emitter, Triplet-triplet annihilation based molecular photon upconversion (TTA-UC), Upconversion system, Vis-to-UV




How to Cite

Kelvin Voon Yan Jie, Safizan Shaari, Mohd Fairus Ahmad, Nor Farhani Zakaria, and Norhayati Sabani, “Photoluminescence Measurement of Triplet Sensitizer-Emitter Solution Using a Customized 3D-Printed Sample Holder”, IJNeaM, vol. 17, no. June, pp. 187–193, Jun. 2024.